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2008| September-December | Volume 14 | Issue 3
January 6, 2009
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Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and dyslipidaemia in adult Asian Indians: A population based study from calcutta, India
Mithun Das, Susil Pal, Arnab Ghosh
September-December 2008, 14(3):87-91
: The study was aimed to determine the association of Apolipoprotein E (apo E) gene polymorphisms on lipid levels in Asian Indian population.
: A total of 350 (184 males and 166 females) adult (30 years and above) Asian Indians of Calcutta and suburb participated in the study. Anthropometric measures, lipids profiles, and blood glucose measures were collected. Out of 350 subjects, a sample of 70 individuals was selected randomly for genotyping after adjusting for age and sex. The apo E gene polymorphisms were determined by agarose gel electrophoresis.
: The apo E polymorphism showed significant association with dyslipidaemia (
=0.0135) with e3/4 combination has had the highest occurrence of dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome (MS) followed by ε4/4 <ε3/3 <ε2/4 <ε2/3 in decreasing order.
: The ε4 allele of apo E gene independent of other risk factors is associated with dyslipidaemia in particular with low HDLc and high TC: HDLc ratio.
The CTLA4 -819 C/T and +49 A/G dimorphisms are associated with Type 1 diabetes in Egyptian children
Hatem Mohamed Saleh, Nestor Rohowsky, Michael Leski
September-December 2008, 14(3):92-98
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic islets. T cell proliferation is negatively regulated by cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 polymorphisms are associated with T1D in some but not all populations.
The study was conducted to investigate the association of the C-819T and A+49G single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of CTLA-4 gene in T1D patients in the Egyptian population.
The association of the C-819T SNP in intron 1 and A+49G SNP in exon 1 of the CTLA-4 gene with T1D were investigated in 396 Egyptian patients ≤14 years old and 396 control subjects >24 years old, with the same ratio of males to females in both groups. The diagnosis of T1D was made on the basis of ketoacidosis or ketosis with severe symptoms of acute onset at presentation and continuous dependence on insulin. Controls were negative for anti-GAD antibodies and were greater than 24 years of age. Genotyping was performed using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP), temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE), and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP).
The results demonstrated an association of the C-819T and A+49G SNPs in the CTLA-4 gene with T1D patients (
=0.0047) and (
=0.000575), respectively. Moreover, this association was stratified by gender and age to female patients with age at onset 0-5 years old (
=0.0186) and (
=0.00115) more than male patient with the age at onset 0-5 years old (
= 0.3120) and (
The results support an association of the C-819T and A+49G SNPs in the CTLA-4 gene with Egyptian children, specifically, females of onset age 0-5 years old.
Bloom's syndrome in a 12-year-old Iranian girl
Naeimeh Tayebi, Hossain Khodaei
September-December 2008, 14(3):103-105
Bloom's syndrome, an autosomal recessive inherited disorder, belongs to the group of chromosomal breakage syndromes. The clinical diagnosis of BS is confirmed cytogenetically. Its frequency in the general population is unknown but it is common in eastern European Ashkenazi Jews
. Case Report:
A 12-year-old girl was referred to us because of short stature. She was the second child of the first cousin marriage. She had a slender body frame, short stature, and microcephaly. Her face was long and narrow with prominent nose, and malar and mandibular hypoplasia. The spots of hyper and hypo pigmentation were observed in the trunk and limbs. Telangectasia spots were observed in some areas of the trunk. Additionally, generalized hirsutism was present in the whole body. Cytogenetic findings revealed an abnormality in the structural chromosome.
This is the first BS case that has been reported in Iranian female population.
Standardization of PCR-RFLP analysis of nsSNP rs1468384 of NPC1L1 gene
Praveen P Balgir, Divya Khanna, Gurlovleen Kaur
September-December 2008, 14(3):82-86
Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein, a newly identified sterol influx transporter, located at the apical membrane of the enterocyte, which may actively facilitate the uptake of cholesterol by promoting the passage of sterols across the brush border membrane of the enterocyte. It effects intestinal cholesterol absorption and intracellular transport and as such is an integral part of complex process of cholesterol homeostasis. The study of population data for the distribution of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of NPC1L1 has lead to the identification of six non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNP). The in vitro analysis using the software MuPro and StructureSNP shows that nsSNP M510I (rs1468384), which involves A®G base pair change leads to decrease in the stability of the protein. A reproducible and a cost-effective PCR-RFLP based assay was developed to screen for the SNP among population data. This SNP has been studied in Caucasian, Asian, and African American populations. Till date, no data is available on Indian population. The distribution of M510I NPC1L1 genotype was estimated in the North Western Indian Population as a test case. The allele distribution in Indian Population differs significantly from that of other populations. The methodology thus proved to be robust enough to bring out these differences.
Fc gamma receptor polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus and their correlation with the clinical severity of the disease
Vandana Pradhan, Manisha Patwardhan, K Ghosh
September-December 2008, 14(3):77-81
Receptors for the Fc domains of IgG (Fc γ R) play a critical role in linking humoral and cellular immune responses. The various Fc γ R genes may contribute to differences in infectious and immune related diseases in various ethnic populations. Polymorphisms of Fc γ R mainly Fc γ R IIA, IIB, IIIA, IIIB have been identified as genetic factors influencing susceptibility to disease or disease course of a prototype autoimmune disease like Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE). Activated and inhibitory Fc γ Rs seem to play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE, in initiation of autoimmunity, the subsequent development of inflammatory lesions and finally immune clearance mechanisms. This review focuses on the role of Fc γ R polymorphism and their association with clinical manifestations and initiation of autoantibody production, inflammatory handling of immune complexes and disease development in SLE patients.
Allelic variants of
are not associated with dyslexia in India
Pushpa Saviour, Satish Kumar, U Kiran, Rajasekhara Reddy Ravuri, VR Rao, Nallur Basappa Ramachandra
September-December 2008, 14(3):99-102
Dyslexia is a hereditary neurological disorder that manifests as an unexpected difficulty in learning to read despite adequate intelligence, education, and normal senses. The prevalence of dyslexia ranges from 3 to 15% of the school aged children. Many genetic studies indicated that loci on 6p21.3, 15q15-21, and 18p11.2 have been identified as promising candidate gene regions for dyslexia. Recently, it has been suggested that allelic variants of gene,
influence dyslexia. In the present study, exon 2 and 10 of
has been analyzed to verify whether these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence dyslexia, in our population. Our study identified 4 SNPs however, none of these SNPS were found to be significantly associated with dyslexia suggesting
allelic variants are not associated with dyslexia.
LETTER TO THE EDITOR
The moroccan human mutation database
Ilham Ratbi, Alae-eddine Gati, Abdelaziz Sefiani
September-December 2008, 14(3):106-107
National and ethnic human mutation database: A need of the day
AC Gorakshakar, K Ghosh
September-December 2008, 14(3):75-76
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